The Promotional Mix

What is a promotional mix? A promotional mix is a blend of promotional variables combined into one plan to promote a specific product or service. In this document, we will outline the key promotional elements.

  1. Advertising

Unlike other promotional activities, advertising is characterized by the following:

– Advertising is an impersonal effort. Communication between the advertiser and the public is done indirectly through newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations.

– Advertising differs from personal sales which are undertaken by sales representatives who personally contact the public to sell goods and services.

– Advertising is not only limited to the display and promotion of goods.

– In advertising, the identity of the advertiser is disclosed, whereas publicity often does not specify the source of information.

Advertising is also characterized by:

– its geographical reach through non-personal communication means. Ads target a large segment of consumers.

– The ad message can be repeated a number of times and supported through several means of advertising.

– The ad cost per consumer is low.


2- Personal selling

Personal selling is a personal and direct contact between the seller and the buyer in an attempt by the seller to complete an exchange. Since the product is sold in person, salesmen play a prominent role in promoting the products of any company.

Salesmen may directly contact consumers to sell products such as industrial goods and consumer products or sell goods through intermediaries (wholesalers or retailers) when it comes to most consumer goods, particularly soft goods.


Personal selling is characterized by its high cost in terms of the salesforce and its efficiency, depending on the size of the organization. Personal selling falls short of the reach achieved in advertising. In personal selling, the message is directed to a specific individual or group of individuals at a single time.

3- Sales promotion

Advertising and personal selling are often coupled with sale promotions. Promotions are short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service. Both advertising and personal selling offer reasons to buy a product or service while sales promotion provide incentives for immediate purchases.

The objectives of sales promotions are as follows:

  • To attract new consumers after entering new markets.
  • To fight competition
  • To increase the sales of stagnant products.
  • To encourage recurring purchases
  • To retain customers.
  • To motivate customers to make a purchase to try a new product.

4- Public relations

Webster’s New Dictionary defines public relations as a set of activities undertaken by a body, association, government, or organization, with the aim of establishing good and healthy relationships with various audiences, such as consumers, users and shareholders, I.e. the public in general, so as to explain the entity’s objectives and missions in a bid to encourage cooperation with various stakeholders.


The difference between public relations and advertising

Public Relations


To address public issues from within the organization.

To explain the advantages of the item or service to attract new customers.

Introduces the institution to the public and familiarizes the community with its policies as to cement its position

Incentivizes consumers to buy goods. Advertising is one of the tools used to introduce an organization.

Integrated public relations touches on all aspects.

Focuses on information that often appeals to consumers and obscures information that the public may dislike.

The media endorses information released by the public relations department to inform and educate the public.

Media outlets consider advertising as an income source because advertisers buy ad space to increase their profit from sales.


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